John Bowers QC will discuss European human rights law and freedom of religion. The scope of what is a religion will be addressed. He will examine the effect of freedom of religion as a qualified right. He will consider decided cases on these issues: wearing religious insignia, rights to circumcise, banning of ritual slaughter, Sabbath observance, religious education and the cases where religious and sexual orientations clash. He will conclude with some general observations on the approach of the courts to adjudicating issues of religious freedom.